Tuesday, 3 May 2011


The context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon. The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer (there is a crater on the lunar far side which bears his name). This in turn triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States.

Incandescent light bulb

The incandescent light bulb makes light by heating a metal filament wire to a high temperature until it glows. In 1802, Humphrie Davy had what was then the most powerful electrical battery in the world at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. In that year, he created the first incandescent light by passing the current through a thin strip of platinum, chosen because the metal had an extremely high melting point. It was not bright enough nor did it last long enough to be practical, but it was the precedent behind the efforts of scores of experimenters over the next 75 years. In 1809, Davy also created the first arc lamp with two carbon charcoal rods connected to a 2000-cell battery; it was demonstrated to the Royal Institution in 1810.

Monday, 2 May 2011


Two new vaccines

Put to work at the same body to the cells that grow uncontrollably is the strategy that seems to be decanted for cancer research. Two studies presented in 2009 at the Congress of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), have shown the effectiveness of separate vaccines to improve the prognosis of two common tumors: non-Hodgkin lymphoma and melanoma.

They are two therapeutic vaccines do not prevent the appearance of the disease but do affect its development and increase the life expectancy of patients. The perspective is stretched over a year in the case of lymphoma and in five months in patients with melanoma, a skin cancer with good prognosis if diagnosed early and bad expectations when it is located and extended.

Although both vaccines are administered in combination with chemotherapy, it was demonstrated that their efficacy opens the door to new clinical trials. The melanoma vaccine is made from a protein in the tumor itself and stimulates the production of T cells, a type of white blood cells multiply and seek out protein gp100 to try to destroy it and with it, the malignant cells.



The origin of beer was just at the same time that the birth of agriculture, or the invention of bread. It was discovered a type of beer from China dated around the 7000 b.C that was the result of a mix of rice, fruits and honey.

There was another type of beer on the Mesopotamia and Egypt as of 3500 b.C, it is said the beer was elaborated by women or priestess and it was used as medicine or as sacrifice to gods in that country.

The importance of beer in the culture of Pharaonic Egypt is reflected in the large number of statuettes alluding to the process of making this kind of drink.

Beer consumption in Europe dates from the Bronze Age. The beer must have been one of the most common beverages until the wine began to move as liquor associated with the elite and the sacredness.

During the Middle Ages European population consumed an enormous amount of beer, estimated at about 300 liters per person per year since it took all meals in preference to water or as a substitute for other foods.

The manufacturing was refined by Catholic monks. In 1516 Germany regulates the purity and since then, countless of jars, special glasses and even specific celebrations as Oktobefest of Munic, who has served two centuries, have made the beer the most popular drink almost everywhere in the world.